electrical theory and electrical fundementals for all electrical related people . students , engineers, electrician #electricaltheorems,electrical,

Monday, 22 December 2014

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electrical theory and electrical fundementals for all electrical related people . students , engineers, electrician #electricaltheorems,electrical,

Sunday, 21 December 2014

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electrical theory and electrical fundementals for all electrical related people . students , engineers, electrician #electricaltheorems,electrical,

PIC stands for Peripheral Interface Controller given by Microchip Technology to identify its single-chip micro controllers. These devices have been very successful in 8-bit micro controllers. The main reason is that Microchip Technology has continuously upgraded the device architecture and added needed peripherals to the micro controller to suit customers' requirements. The development tools such as assembler and simulator are freely available on the internet at www.electricaltheorems.blogspot.in 
The architectures of various PIC micro controllers can be divided as follows.

Low - end PIC Architectures 

Microchip PIC microcontrollers are available in various types. When PIC microcontroller MCU was first available from General Instruments in early 1980's, the microcontroller consisted of a simple processor executing 12-bit wide instructions with basic I/O functions. These devices are known as low-end architectures. They have limited program memory and are meant for applications requiring simple interface functions and small program & data memories. Some of the low-end device numbers are

Mid range PIC Architectures

Mid range PIC architectures are built by upgrading low-end architectures with more number of peripherals, more number of registers and more data/program memory. Some of the mid-range devices are
Program memory type is indicated by an alphabet.
F = Flash
RC = Mask ROM
Popularity of the PIC microcontrollers is due to the following factors.
  1. Speed: Harvard Architecture, RISC architecture, 1 instruction cycle = 4 clock cycles.
  2. Instruction set simplicity: The instruction set consists of just 35 instructions (as opposed to 111 instructions for 8051).
    1. Power-on-reset and brown-out reset. Brown-out-reset means when the power supply goes below a specified voltage (say 4V), it causes PIC to reset; hence malfunction is avoided.
      A watch dog timer (user programmable) resets the processor if the software/program ever malfunctions and deviates  from its normal operation.
    2. PIC microcontroller has four optional clock sources.
      •   Low power crystal
      •   Mid range crystal
      •   High range crystal
      •   RC oscillator (low cost).
    3. Programmable timers and on-chip ADC.
    4. Up to 12 independent interrupt sources.
    5. Powerful output pin control (25 mA (max.) current sourcing capability per pin.)
    6. EPROM/OTP/ROM/Flash memory option.
    7. I/O port expansion capability.

CPU Architecture

The CPU uses Harvard architecture with separate Program and Variable (data) memory interface. This facilitates instruction fetch and the operation on data/accessing of variables simultaneously.
Fig 1

PIC Memory Organisation

PIC microcontroller has 13 bits of program memory address. Hence it can address up to 8k of program memory. The program counter is 13-bit. PIC 16C6X or 16C7X program memory is 2k or 4k. While addressing 2k of program memory, only 11-  bits are required. Hence two most significant bits of the program counter are ignored. Similarly, while addressing 4k of memory, 12 bits are required. Hence the MSb of the program counter is ignored.

Fig 2

The program memory map of PIC16C74A is shown in Fig 2 
On reset, the program counter is cleared and the program starts at 00H. Here a 'goto' instruction is required that takes the processor to the mainline program.
When a peripheral interrupt, that is enabled, is received, the processor goes to 004H. A suitable branching to the interrupt service routine (ISR) is written at 004H.

Data memory (Register Files)

Data Memory is also known as Register File. Register File consists of two components.
  1. General purpose register file (same as RAM).
     2. Special purpose register file (similar to SFR in 8051).
Fig 3
The special purpose register file consists of input/output ports and control registers. Addressing from 00H to FFH requires 8 bits of address. However, the instructions that use direct addressing modes in PIC to address these register files use 7 bits of instruction only. Therefore the register bank select (RP0) bit in the STATUS register is used to select one of the register banks.
In indirect addressing FSR register is used as a pointer to anywhere from 00H to FFH in the data memory.

Saturday, 20 December 2014

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electrical theory and electrical fundementals for all electrical related people . students , engineers, electrician #electricaltheorems,electrical,

Thursday, 18 December 2014

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electrical theory and electrical fundementals for all electrical related people . students , engineers, electrician #electricaltheorems,electrical,

Like a linear power supply, the switched mode power supply too converts the available unregulated ac or dc input voltage to a regulated dc output voltage. However in case of SMPS with input supply drawn from the ac mains, the input voltage is first rectified and filtered using a capacitor at the rectifier output. The unregulated dc voltage across the capacitor is then fed to a high frequency dc-to-dc converter. Most of the dc-to-dc converters used in SMPS circuits have an intermediate high frequency ac conversion stage to facilitate the use of a high frequency transformer for voltage scaling and isolation. In contrast, in linear power supplies with input voltage drawn from ac mains, the mains voltage is first stepped down (and isolated) to the desired magnitude using a mains frequency transformer, followed by rectification and filtering. The high frequency transformer used in a SMPS circuit is much smaller in size and weight compared to the low frequency transformer of the linear power supply circuit.

The ‘Switched Mode Power Supply’ owes its name to the dc-to-dc switching converter for conversion from unregulated dc input voltage to regulated dc output voltage. The switch employed is turned ‘ON’ and ‘OFF’ (referred as switching) at a high frequency. During ‘ON’ mode the switch is in saturation mode with negligible voltage drop across the collector and emitter terminals of the switch where as in ‘OFF’ mode the switch is in cut-off mode with negligible current through the collector and emitter terminals. On the contrary the voltageregulating switch, in a linear regulator circuit, always remains in the active region.
Details of some popular SMPS circuits, with provisions for incorporating high frequency transformer for voltage scaling and isolation, have been discussed in next few lessons. In this lesson a simplified schematic switching arrangement is described that omits the transformer action. In fact there are several other switched mode dc-to-dc converter circuits that do not use a high frequency transformer. In such SMPS circuits the unregulated input dc voltage is fed to a high frequency voltage chopping circuit such that when the chopping circuit (often called dc to dc chopper) is in ON state, the unregulated voltage is applied to the output circuit that includes the load and some filtering circuit. When the chopper is in OFF state, zero magnitude of voltage is applied to the output side. The ON and OFF durations are suitably controlled such that the average dc voltage applied to the output circuit equals the desired magnitude of output voltage. The ratio of ON time to cycle time (ON + OFF time) is known as duty ratio of the chopper circuit. A high switching frequency (of the order of 100 KHz) and a fast control over the duty ratio results in application of the desired mean voltage along with ripple voltage of a very high frequency to the output side, consisting of a low pass filter circuit followed by the load. The high frequency ripple in voltage is effectively filtered using small values of filter capacitors and inductors. A schematic chopper circuit along with the output filter is shown in Fig.1 

Fig 1
 Some other switched mode power supply circuits work in a slightly different manner than the dc-to-dc chopper circuit discussed above. Details of some of these circuits have been discussed in following lessons.

SMPS versus linear power supply

As discussed above, in a linear regulator circuit the excess voltage from the unregulated dc input supply drops across a series element (and hence there is power loss in proportion to this voltage drop) whereas in switched mode circuit the unregulated portion of the voltage is removed by modulating the switch duty ratio. The switching losses in modern switches (like: MOSFETs) are much less compared to the loss in the linear element.
In most of the switched mode power supplies it is possible to insert a high frequency transformer to isolate the output and to scale the output voltage magnitude. In linear power supply the isolation and voltage-scaling transformer can be put only across the low frequency utility supply. The low frequency transformer is very heavy and bulky in comparison to the high frequency transformer of similar VA rating. Similarly the output voltage filtering circuit, in case of low frequency ripples is much bulkier than if the ripple is of high frequency. The switched mode circuit produces ripple of high frequency that can be filtered easily using smaller volume of filtering elements.
Linear power supply though more bulky and less efficient has some advantages too when compared with the switched mode power supply. Generally the control of the linear power supply circuit is much simpler than that of SMPS circuit. Since there is no high frequency switching, the switching related electro-magnetic interference (EMI) is practically absent in linear power supplies but is of some concern in SMPS circuits. Also, as far as output voltage regulation is concerned the linear power supplies are superior to SMPS. One can more easily meet tighter specifications on output voltage ripples by using linear power supplies

Thursday, 11 December 2014

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electrical theory and electrical fundementals for all electrical related people . students , engineers, electrician #electricaltheorems,electrical,

A diode generally refers to a two-terminal solid-state semiconductor device that presents a low impedance to current flow in one direction and a high impedance to current flow in the opposite direction. These properties allow the diode to be used as a one-way current valve in electronic circuits. Rectifiers are a class of circuits whose purpose is to convert ac waveforms (usually sinusoidal and with zero average value) into a waveform that has a significant non-zero average value (dc component). Simply stated, rectifiers are ac-to-dc energy converter circuits. Most rectifier circuits employ diodes as the principal elements in the energy conversion process; thus the almost inseparable notions of diodes and rectifiers. The general electrical characteristics of common diodes and some simple rectifier topologies incorporating diodes are discussed.
Most diodes are made from a host crystal of silicon (Si) with appropriate impurity elements introduced to modify, in a controlled manner, the electrical characteristics of the device. These diodes are the typical pn-junction (or bipolar) devices used in electronic circuits. Another type is the Schottky diode (unipolar), produced by placing a metal layer directly onto the semiconductor [Schottky, 1938; Mott, 1938]. The metal semiconductor interface serves the same function as the pn semiconductor materials such as gallium-arsenide (GaAs) and silicon-carbide (SiC) are also in use for new and specialized applications of diodes. Detailed discussion of diode structures and the physics of their operation can be found in later paragraphs of this section. The electrical circuit symbol for a bipolar diode is shown in Fig.1. The polarities associated with the forward voltage drop for forward current flow are also included. Current or voltage opposite to the polarities indicated are considered to be negative values with respect to the diode conventions shown.

The characteristic curve shown in Fig.2 is representative of the currentvoltage dependencies of typical diodes. The diode conducts forward current with a small forward voltage drop across the device, simulating a closed switch. The relationship between the forward current and forward voltage is approximately given by the Shockley diode equation [Shockley, 1949]:
Fig 2
Is is the leakage current through the diode, q is the electronic charge, n is a correction factor, k is Boltzmann’s constant, and T is the temperature of the semiconductor. Around the knee of the curve in Fig.2 is a positive voltage that is termed the turn-on or sometimes the threshold voltage for the diode. This value is an approximate voltage above which the diode is considered turned “on” and can be modeled to first degree as a closed switch with constant forward drop. Below the threshold voltage value the diode is considered weakly conducting and approximated as an open switch. The exponential relationship means that the diode forward current can change by orders of magnitude before there is a large change in diode voltage, thus providing the simple circuit model during conduction. The nonlinear relationship also provides a means of frequency mixing for applications in modulation circuits. Reverse voltage applied to the diode causes a small leakage current (negative according to the sign convention) to flow that is typically orders of magnitude lower than current in the forward direction. The diode can withstand reverse voltages up to a limit determined by its physical construction and the semiconductor material used. Beyond this value the reverse voltage imparts enough energy to the charge carriers to cause large increases in current. The mechanisms by which this current increase occurs are impact ionization (avalanche) [McKay, 954] and a tunneling phenomenon (Zener breakdown) [Moll, 1964]. Avalanche breakdown results in large1power dissipation in the diode, is generally destructive, and should be avoided at all times. Both breakdown regions are superimposed in Fig .2 for comparison of their effects on the shape of the diode characteristic curve. Avalanche breakdown occurs for reverse applied voltages in the range of volts to kilovolts depending on the exact design of the diode. Zener breakdown occurs at much lower voltages than the avalanche mechanism. Diodes specifically designed to operate in the Zener breakdown mode are used extensively as voltage regulators in regulator integrated circuits and as discrete components in large regulated power supplies. During forward conduction the power loss in the diode can become excessive for large current flow. Schottky diodes have an inherently lower turn-on voltage than pn -junction diodes and are therefore more desirable in applications where the energy losses in the diodes are significant (such as output rectifiers in switching power supplies). Other considerations such as recovery characteristics from forward conduction to reverse blocking

Saturday, 6 December 2014

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We have seen the speed torque characteristic of the machine. In the stable region of operation in the motoring mode, the curve is rather steep and goes from zero torque at synchronous speed to the stall torque at a value of slip s = ŝ. Normally ŝ may be such that stall torque is about three times that of the rated operating torque of the machine, and hence may be about 0.3 or less.  This means that in the entire loading range of the machine, the speed change is quite small.  The machine speed is quite stiff with respect to load changes.  The entire speed variation is only in the range ns  to (1 − ŝ)ns, ns  being dependent on supply frequency and number of poles.

The foregoing discussion shows that the induction machine, when operating from mains is essentially a constant speed machine.  Many industrial drives, typically for fan or pump applications, have typically constant speed requirements and hence the induction machine is ideally suited for these. However,the induction machine, especially the squirrel cage type, is quite rugged and has a simple construction.  Therefore it is good candidate for variable speed applications if it can be achieved.

Speed control by changing applied voltage

From the torque equation of the induction machine given  we can see that the torque depends on the square of the applied voltage. The variation of speed torque curves with respect to the applied voltage is shown in fig. These curves show that the slip at maximum torque ŝ remains same, while the value of stall torque comes down with decrease in applied voltage. The speed range for stable operation remains the same.
 Further, we also note that the starting torque is also lower at lower voltages. Thus, even if a given voltage level is sufficient for achieving the running torque, the machine may not start. This method of trying to control the speed is best suited for loads that require very little starting torque, but their torque requirement may increase with speed. also shows a load torque characteristic — one that is typical of a fan type of load. In a fan (blower) type of load,the variation of torque with speed is such that T ω2. Here one can see that it may be possible to run the motor to lower speeds within the range ns  to (1 − ŝ)ns. Further, since the load torque at zero speed is zero, the machine can start even at reduced voltages. This will not be possible with constant torque type of loads. One may note that if the applied voltage is reduced, the voltage across the magnetising branch also comes down. This in turn means that the magnetizing current and hence flux level are reduced.  Reduction in the flux level in the machine impairs torque production(recall explantions on torque production), which is primarily the explanation. If, however, the machine is running under lightly loaded conditions, then operating under rated flux levels is not required. Under such conditions, reduction in magnetizingcurrent improves the power factor of operation. Some amount of energy saving may also be achieved.
Voltage control may be achieved by adding series resistors (a lossy, inefficient proposition), or a series inductor / autotransformer (a bulky solution) or a more modern solution using semiconductor devices. A typical solid state circuit used for this purpose is the AC voltage controller or AC chopper. Another use of voltage control is in the so-called ‘soft-start’ of the machine. This is discussed in the section on starting methods.

Rotor resistance control

The reader may recall from eqn.17 the expression for the torque of the induction machine. Clearly, it is dependent on the rotor resistance.  Further, shows that the maximum value is independent of the rotor resistance. The slip at maximum torque is dependent on the rotor resistance. Therefore, we may expect that if the rotor resistance is changed, the maximum torque point shifts to higher slip values, while retaining a constant torque. a family of torque-speed characteristic obtained by changing the rotor resistance.

 Note that while the maximum torque and synchronous speed remain constant, the slip at which maximum torque occurs increases with increase in rotor resistance, and so does the starting torque. whether the load is of constant torque type or fan-type, it is evident that the speed control range is more with this method.  Further, rotor resistance control could also be used as a means of generating high starting torque.
For all its advantages, the scheme has two serious drawbacks.  Firstly, in order to vary the rotor resistance, it is necessary to connect external variable resistors (winding resistance itself cannot be changed).  This, therefore necessitates a slip-ring machine, since only in that case rotor terminals are available outside. For cage rotor machines, there are no rotor terminals.  Secondly, the method is not very efficient since the additional resistance and operation at high slips entails dissipation. The resistors connected to the slip-ring brushes should have good power dissipation capability. Water based rheostats may be used for this. A ‘solid-state’ alternative to a rheostat is a chopper controlled resistance where the duty ratio control of of the chopper presents a variable resistance load to the rotor of the induction machine.

Stator frequency control

The expression for the synchronous speed indicates that by changing the stator frequency also it can be changed. This can be achieved by using power electronic circuits called inverters which convert dc to ac of desired frequency. Depending on the type of control scheme of the inverter, the ac generated may be variable-frequency-fixed-amplitude or variable-frequency- variable-amplitude type. Power electronic control achieves smooth variation of voltage and frequency of the ac output. This when fed to the machine is capable of running at a controlled speed. However, consider the equation for the induced emf in the induction machine.
                                               V =4.44Nφmf
where N is the number of the turns per phase, φm is the peak flux in the air gap and f is the frequency. Note that in order to reduce the speed, frequency has to be reduced. If the frequency is reduced while the voltage is kept constant, thereby requiring the amplitude of induced emf to remain the same, flux has to increase. This is not advisable since the machine likely to enter deep saturation. If this is to be avoided, then flux level must be maintained constant which implies that voltage must be reduced along with frequency. The ratio is held constant in order to maintain the flux level for maximum torque capability. Actually, it is the voltage across the magnetizing branch of the exact equivalent circuit that must be maintained constant, for it is that which determines the induced emf. Under conditions where the stator voltage drop is negligible compared the applied voltage,
In this mode of operation, the voltage across the magnetizing inductance in the ’exact’ equivalent circuit reduces in amplitude with reduction in frequency and so does the inductive reactance. This implies that the current through the inductance and the flux in the machine remains constant.  The speed torque characteristics at any frequency may be estimated as before. There is one curve for every excitation frequency considered corresponding to every value of synchronous speed. The curves are shown below. It may be seen that the maximum torque remains constant.

Tuesday, 2 December 2014

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Batteries operate by converting chemical energy into electrical energy through electrochemical discharge reactions. Batteries are composed of one or more cells, each containing a positive electrode, negative electrode, separator, and electrolyte. Cells can be divided into two major classes: primary and secondary

Primary cells are not rechargeable and must be replaced once the reactants are depleted. Secondary cells are rechargeable and require a DC charging source to restore reactants to their fully charged state. Examples of primary cells include carbon-zinc (Leclanche or dry cell), alkaline-manganese, mercuryzinc, silver-zinc, and lithium cells (e.g., lithium-manganese dioxide, lithium-sulfur dioxide, and lithiumthionyl chloride). Examples of secondary cells include lead-lead dioxide (lead-acid), nickel-cadmium, nickel-iron, nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride, silver-zinc, silver-cadmium, and lithium-ion. For aircraft applications, secondary cells are the most prominent, but primary cells are sometimes used for powering critical avionics equipment (e.g., flight data recorders).


are rated in terms of their nominal voltage and ampere-hour capacity. The voltage rating is based on the number of cells connected in series and the nominal voltage of each cell (2.0 V for leadacid and 1.2 V for nickel-cadmium). The most common voltage rating for aircraft batteries is 24 V. A24-V lead-acid battery contains 12 cells, while a 24-V nickel-cadmium battery contains either 19 or 20 cells (the U.S. military rates 19-cell batteries at 24 V). Voltage ratings of 22.8, 25.2, and 26.4 V are also common with nickel-cadmium batteries, consisting of 19, 20, or 22 cells, respectively. Twelve-volt lead-acid batteries, consisting of six cells in series, are also used in many general aviation aircraft. The ampere-hour (Ah) capacity available from a fully charged battery depends on its temperature, rate of discharge, and age. Normally, aircraft batteries are rated at room temperature (25°C), the C-rate(1-hour rate), and beginning of life. Military batteries, however, often are rated in terms of the end- oflife capacity, i.e., the minimum capacity before the battery is considered unserviceable. Capacity ratings of aircraft batteries vary widely, generally ranging from 3 to 65 Ah.
The maximum power available from a battery depends on its internal construction. High rate cells, for example, are designed specifically to have very low internal impedance as required for starting turbine engines and auxiliary power units (APUs). Unfortunately, no universally accepted standard exists for defining the peak power capability of an aircraft battery. For lead-acid batteries, the peak power typically is defined in terms of the cold-cranking amperes, or CCA rating. For nickel-cadmium batteries, the peak power rating typically is defined in terms of the current at maximum power, or Imp rating. These ratings are based on different temperatures (18°C for CCA, 23°C for Imp), making it difficult to compare different battery types. Furthermore, neither rating adequately characterizes the battery’s initial peak current capability, which is especially important for engine start applications. More rigorous peak power specifications have been included in some military standards. For example, MIL-B-8565/15 specifies the initial peak current, the current after 15 s, and the capacity after 60 s, during a 14-V constant voltage discharge at two different temperatures (24 and26°C). The state-of-charge of a battery is the percentage of its capacity available relative to the capacity when it is fully charged. By this definition, a fully charged battery has a state-of-charge of 100% and a battery with 20% of its capacity removed has a state-of-charge of 80%. The state-of-health of a battery is the percentage of its capacity available when fully charged relative to its rated capacity. For example, a battery rated at 30 Ah, but only capable of delivering 24 Ah when fully charged, will have a state-of-health of24/30 10080%. Thus, the state-of-health takes into account the loss of capacity as the battery ages

Lead-Acid Batteries

Theory of Operation

The chemical reactions that occur in a lead-acid battery are represented by the following equations:
As the cell is charged, the sulfuric acid (H2 SO4) concentration increases and becomes highest when the cell is fully charged. Likewise, when the cell is discharged, the acid concentration decreases and becomes most dilute when the cell is fully discharged. The acid concentration generally is expressed in terms of specific gravity, which is weight of the electrolyte compared to the weight of an equal volume of pure water.
The cell’s specific gravity can be estimated from its open circuit voltage using the following equation:

Specific Gravity (SG)= Open Circuit Voltage (OCV)- 0.84

There are two basic cell types: vented and recombinant. Vented cells have a flooded electrolyte, and the hydrogen and oxygen gases generated during charging are vented from the cell container. Recombinant cells have a starved or gelled electrolyte, and the oxygen generated from the positive electrode during charging diffuses to the negative electrode where it recombines to form water by the following reaction:

Pb + H2SO4 + 1/2O → PbSO4 + H2O

The recombination reaction suppresses hydrogen evolution at the negative electrode, thereby allowing the cell to be sealed. In practice, the recombination efficiency is not 100% and a resealable valve regulates the internal pressure at a relatively low value, generally below 10 psig. For this reason, sealed lead-acid cells are often called “valve-regulated lead-acid” (VRLA) cells.

Nickel-Cadmium Batteries

Theory of Operation

The chemical reactions that occur in a nickel-cadmium battery are represented by the following equations:

There are two basic cell types: vented and recombinant. Vented cells have a flooded electrolyte, and the hydrogen and oxygen gases generated during charging are vented from the cell container. Recombinant cells have a starved electrolyte, and the oxygen generated from the positive electrode during charging diffuses to the negative electrode where it recombines to form cadmium hydroxide by the following reaction:
Cd + H2O + 1/2O→ Cd(OH)
The recombination reaction suppresses hydrogen evolution at the negative electrode, thereby allowing the cell to be sealed. Unlike valve-regulated lead-acid cells, recombinant nickel-cadmium cells are sealed with a high-pressure vent that releases only during abusive conditions. Thus, these cells remain sealed under normal charging conditions. However, provisions for gas escape must still be provided when designing battery cases since abnormal conditions may be encountered periodically (e.g., in the event of a charger failure that causes an overcurrent condition).