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Monday, 9 February 2015

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SILICON CONTROLLED RECTIFIER (SCR)

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The Silicon Controlled Rectifier is the most popular of the thyristor family of four layer regenerative devices. It is normally turned on by the application of a gate pulse when a forward bias voltage is present at the main terminals. However, being regenerative or 'latching', it cannot be turned off via the gate terminals specially at the extremely high amplification factor of the gate. There are two main types of SCR's
Converter grade or Phase Control thyristors These devices are the work horses of the Power Electronics. They are turned off by natural (line) commutation and are reverse biased at least for a few milliseconds subsequent to a conduction period. No fast switching feature is desired of these devices. They are available at voltage ratings in excess of 5 KV starting from about 50 V and current ratings of about 5 KA. The largest converters for HVDC transmission are built with series-parallel combination of these devices. Conduction voltages are device voltage rating dependent and range between 1.5 V (600V) to about 3.0 V (+5 KV). These devices are unsuitable for any 'forced-commutated' circuit requiring unwieldy large commutation components.
The dynamic di/dt and dv/dt capabilities of the SCR have vastly improved over the years borrowing emitter shorting and other techniques adopted for the faster variety. The requirement for hard gate drives and di/dt limting inductors have been eliminated in the process.

Inverter grade thyristors: 

Turn-off times of these thyristors range from about 5 to 50 μsecs when hard switched. They are thus called fast or 'inverter grade' SCR's. The SCR's are mainly used in circuits that are operated on DC supplies and no alternating voltage is available to turn them off. Commutation networks have to be added to the basic converter only to turn-off the SCR's. The efficiency, size and weight of these networks are directly related to the turn-off time, tq of the SCR. The commutation circuits utilised resonant networks or charged capacitors. Quite a few commutation networks were designed and some like the McMurray-Bedford became widely accepted
Asymmetrical, light-activated, reverse conducting SCR's Quite a few varieties of the basic SCR have been proposed for specific applications. The Asymmetrical thyristor is convenient when reactive powers are involved and the light activated SCR assists in paralleling or series operation.
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